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hair saloonД. І. Менделєєв був членом понад 90 академій наук, наукових товариств, університетів різних країн. Назва Менделєєва носить хімічний елемент № 101 (Менделевій), підводний гірський хребет і кратер на зворотному боці Місяця, ряд навчальних закладів та наукових інститутів. У 1962 р. АН СРСР заснувала премію і Золоту медаль ім. Менделєєва за кращі роботи з хімії та хімічної технології.

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Хімічний Світ

Нет токсичных веществ, а есть токсичные дозы. (Парацельс)

About Alcohol Fuel

fuelIn his State of the Union speech of January 23, 2007 President George W. Bush proposed to reduce gasoline use in the US by 20 percent over the next ten years: “When we do that, we will have cut our total imports by the equivalent of three-quarters of all the oil we now import from the Middle East.” The goal was an ambitious one, requiring a significant increase in the supply of alternative fuels to 35 billion gallons by the year 2017 — five times the existing target at the time.

Детальніше: About Alcohol Fuel

Ethanol Fuel’s Extraordinary Past

etanolAs I write these pages, there is a battle raging between the proponents of ethanol, which include corn growers, their lobbyists, fuel producers and blenders, and equipment man­ufacturers, and its detractors, a dissimilar mix of environmentalists, petroleum advocates, the food industry, and adherents of global food policy. And, as it turns out, the conflict is far from original.

In 1978, while doing research for “Mother”

Детальніше: Ethanol Fuel’s Extraordinary Past

Gasohol and E-85

gasoholThe oil crisis of 1973-74, spurred by the deci­sion of the Organization of Arab Petroleum Exporting Countries (OAPEC) to cease oil shipments to countries that supported Israel in the October 1973 Yom Kippur War, had immediate effects on the US economy. The embargo was lifted in March of 1974, but driven by the collusion of the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) to raise world oil prices, the market price of crude oil quadrupled in a matter of months.

Детальніше: Gasohol and E-85

Brazil's Booming Ethanol Program

f fThe US, of course, was not the only country affected by the inconsistencies of the world petroleum markets. Brazil, with significant domestic oil resources but limited infrastructure to develop it, relied heavily on petroleum imports and was hard-hit by the 1973 embargo. With a serious trade deficit at hand and the threat of monumental inflation, the govern­ment launched its “Programa Nacional do Alcool” or “Pro-Alcohol” program. Its goal was the phase-out of all automotive fuel derived from fossil sources, to be replaced with domes­tically produced ethanol.

Детальніше: Brazil's Booming Ethanol Program

The Economics of Ethanol

etanolIn 2008, reports from the World Bank, Oxfam and a number of environmental and humani­tarian groups criticized ethanol as the solution to neither the oil crisis nor the climate crisis, while contributing to the rise in food prices. The details paint a picture of unfair trade poli­cies, the conversion of forests to new biofuel cropland, errant government subsidies, and negative energy balances. But people within the ethanol industry, and many economists and global energy experts hold a different view.

Детальніше: The Economics of Ethanol

Food vs. Fuel

Food vs. FuelNone of the anxiety over rising corn prices escaped the attention of the nation’s food indus­try, whose leaders expressed concerns over diverting grains to fuel use and the subsequent effect it might have on food staples and live­stock feed. True to form, costs of grain-based products rose noticeably, a boon for price- starved farmers, but a bust for consumers of everything from meat to soda pop to dog food — anything that uses corn sweeteners in its manufacture.

Детальніше: Food vs. Fuel

What You’ll Need to Start

bioOne of the wonderful things about biofuel is that you can make it yourself. Fuel made from local resources makes it possible, at last, to get free of the economic shackles that bind us to a system that has become so volatile as to impact our own financial and societal well being, even down to the individual level. An entire economy was built on cheap petroleum, and the dearth of that cheap petroleum now threatens to destroy it.

Детальніше: What You’ll Need to Start

Understanding Your Commitment

understandingOn a practical level, the best place to start would be in trying to establish how much fuel you’ll actually need. If you knowyou’ll only be experimenting, you can limit your investment to scrap and salvaged parts and probably 

locate a free source of feedstock without much difficulty. This approach may be a good initiation to ethanol fuel for everyone, since it’ll give a taste of what it takes to prepare a mash ferment, cook it, and run a batch of alcohol through a column.

Детальніше: Understanding Your Commitment

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